Drawing from various historical materials, accounts of early explorers, and local sources including folktales and local traditions, as well as a number of historical artifacts, this article discusses the imprint of Cheng Ho (Zheng He) and the legacy of Chinese Muslims in Java, especially in pre and early Dutch colonial era.

This study shows that Chinese Muslims had indeed contributed to the spread of Islam and the shape of Muslim cultures in Indonesia, forming what so-called “Sino-Javanese Muslim Cultures”. Unfortunately, however, due to political and ideological reasons, their contributions were neglected and devalued by the New Order government. This article tries to describe and explain this historical legacy, dynamics, and development.

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